Dietary unripe apple polyphenol
inhibits the development of food allergies in murine models
Akiyama H, Sato Y, Watanabe T, Nagaoka MH, Yoshioka Y, Shoji T, Kanda T,
Yamada K, Totsuka M, Teshima R, Sawada J, Goda Y, Maitani T.
National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku Tokyo
The incidence of type I allergic disorders has been increasing worldwide,
particularly, the hypersensitivity to food. We first showed that
apple condensed tannin
(ACT) intake would inhibit the development of the oral sensitization and
that the inhibition could correlate with the rise in the population of
TCRgammadelta-T cells in the intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL)
using W/W(V) mice and B10A mice which were ovalbumin (OVA)-orally
sensitized. Serum OVA-specific immunoglobulin E and immunoglobulin G1 titers
in the OVA-orally sensitized W/W(V) and B10A mice ad libitium fed ACT were
compared to those of the control. The ACT intakes of OVA-sensitized W/W(V)
and B10A mice inhibited the immediate reduction of the body temperature or
the rise in serum histamine induced by active systemic anaphylaxis. The
proportions of the TCRgammadelta-T cells in the IEL of the OVA-orally
sensitized W/W(V) and B10A mice ad libitium fed ACT were
than that in the controls. Furthermore, ACT feeding by itself could induce
the rise in the percentage of the TCRgammadelta-T cells among the IEL of the
W/W(V) and B10A mice. This
suggests that the ACT intake may prevent the development of food allergies
and this effect could be correlated with the rise in the percentage of
TCRgammadelta-T cells among the IEL.
PMID: 16081068 [PubMed - in process]
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, April 1, 2005; 69(4): 829-32.
Clinical efficacy of apple polyphenol for
treating cedar pollinosis.
Kishi, M Saito, T Saito, M Kumemura, H Okamatsu, M Okita, and K Takazawa
Otsu Nutraceutical Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.
A double-blind comparative study was
conducted on cedar pollinosis patients in order to evaluate the treatment
efficacy of apple polyphenol
(Ap). Ap was administered (500 mg) once daily for 12 weeks, starting about 2
weeks prior to cedar pollen dispersion. Pollinosis symptoms during the study
were evaluated according to the classification in the guidelines for
allergic rhinitis diagnosis and treatment. The results show that the
sneezing score was significantly
lower for the Ap group than with the placebo group during the
early period of pollen dispersion and during the main dispersion period. In
addition, no adverse reactions were induced by Ap during the study.
These results suggest that Ap may
alleviate the symptoms of cedar pollinosis.
Characteristics and physiological functions
of polyphenols from apples.
Fundamental Research Laboratory, Asahi Breweries, Ltd., 1-21, Midori
1-chome, Moriya-shi, Ibaraki 302-0106, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Apples contain many kinds of polyphenols, and the main components are
oligomeric procyanidins. Applephenon is apple polyphenol extract
produced commercially from unripe apples, and has been used as food additive
in order to prevent oxidation of components in foods and its application in
functional foods is expected. In a lipid metabolism regulation study,
administration of Applephenon has the potential to exert strong
anti-oxidative activity and to inhibit consumption of vitamin Eand anti-oxidative enzymes.
Double blind clinical trials of Applephenon on pediatric patients with
atopic dermatitis, and tests using type I allergic model mice suggested
that Applephenon might regulate allergic reactions. We found the no
observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of Applephenon is greater than 2000
mg/kg in a 90~day consecutive oral administration toxicity test in rats, and
Applephenon is safe and acceptable based on mutagenicity tests.
PMID: 15630302 [PubMed - in process]
Allergology International Volume
49 Issue 1 Page 69 - March 2000
Anti-allergic effect of apple polyphenol on patients with
atopic dermatitis: A pilot study
The aim of
the present study was to evaluate the
anti-allergic effect of applecondensed tannins (ACT) in patients with
atopic dermatitis (AD) as a
pilot study. An ACT supplement given to the patients at oral doses of 10
mg/kg per day for 8 weeks reduced
the inflammation, lichenification, cracking, itching, sleep disturbance and
peripheral blood eosinophil counts. Itching and sleep disturbance
scores after ACT supplement even for
2 weeks were significantly decreased compared with the control group.
The results suggest that ACT has an
anti-allergic effect and that its use improved the symptoms of AD.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2000
effect of apple polyphenols on the allergic model mouse.
Akiyama H, Sakushima J, Taniuchi S, Kanda T, Yanagida A,
Kojima T, Teshima R, Kobayashi Y, Goda Y, Toyoda M.
National Institute of Health Sciences,
1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan.
We studied here the antiallergic
effect of applecondensed tannins (ACT) administered orally to a type
I allergy model mouse transplanted with an IgEL a2 hybridoma secreting
anti-2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP) immunoglobulin E (IgE).
The oral administration of ACT
significantly inhibited the ear swelling responses at 1 h after
antigen-stimulation with picryl chloride. The response was dose dependent
within 0.1 to 10 mg/mouse. The inhibition of the ear swelling response
reached the maximal level (90%
inhibition) when ACT was administered 2 h before the antigen
challenge. These findings suggest that
ACT has an antiallergic effect on
type I allergic symptoms.
PMID: 11085368 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Biotechnol Biochem. 1998 Jul;62(7):1284-9.
effects of apple polyphenol on induced histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells
and rat mast cells.
Kanda T, Akiyama H, Yanagida A, Tanabe M, Goda Y, Toyoda
M, Teshima R, Saito Y.
Institute for Production Research and Development, Nikka Whisky Distilling
Co., Ltd., Chiba, Japan.
The anti-allergic activities of
polyphenolfractionsextracted from immature fruits of apple (Rosaceae,
Malus sp.) were evaluated by in vitro assays. A crude applepolyphenol (CAP)
fraction, which had been obtained from the juice of immature apples by
reverse-phase column chromatography, was further purified by LH-20 column
chromatography to obtain an apple condensed tannin (ACT) fraction consisting
of linear oligomeric epicatechins from the dimer to pentadecamer.
ACT strongly inhibited the release
of histamine from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells stimulated
by the antigen-stimulation and from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated by
compound 48/80. The IC50 values for histamine release were 30 micrograms/ml
and 25 micrograms/ml, respectively. ACT also inhibited hyaluronidase activity and the increase in
intracellular free calcium concentration in RBL-2H3 cells stimulated with
the antigen. These results suggest that ACT affected early signal
transduction including the calcium influx.