Apple polyphenol extracts are listed ("apple essence,
natural") in the FDA's approved additive/GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe)
They are presently used in concentrated levels in
health supplements in Japan.
found that apple polyphenol
extracts are safe, even at concentrations
200 times the recommended human
Researchers at Cornell
University recommend adding apple polyphenol powder to foods to
promote good health.
physiological functions of polyphenols from apples.
Fundamental Research Laboratory, Asahi Breweries, Ltd., 1-21, Midori
1-chome, Moriya-shi, Ibaraki 302-0106, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Apples contain many kinds of polyphenols, and the main components are
oligomeric procyanidins. Applephenon is apple polyphenol extract
produced commercially from unripe apples, and has been used as food additive
in order to prevent oxidation of components in foods and its application in
functional foods is expected. In a lipid metabolism regulation study,
administration of Applephenon has the potential to exert strong
anti-oxidative activity and to inhibit consumption of vitamin E and
anti-oxidative enzymes. Double blind clinical trials of Applephenon on
with atopic dermatitis, and tests using type I allergic model mice suggested
that Applephenon might regulate allergic reactions. We found the
no observed adverse effect level
(NOAEL) of Applephenon is greater than 2000 mg/kg in a 90~day consecutive
oral administration toxicity test in rats, and Applephenon is
safe and acceptable
based on mutagenicity tests.
PMID: 15630302 [PubMed - in process]
Food Chem Toxicol. 2004 Jun;42(6):959-67.
The toxicology and
safety of apple polyphenol extract.
Shoji T, Akazome Y, Kanda T, Ikeda M.
Fundamental Research Laboratory, Asahi Breweries, Ltd., 1-21,
Midori 1-chome, Moriya-shi, Ibaraki 302-0106, Japan. email@example.com
Apple polyphenol extract has strong
antioxidant activity and various physiological functions, and is used
in Japan as a food additive and nutritional supplements. Here, we tested the
consumption safety of Applephenon, which is a polyphenol extract produced
from unripe apples. The Ames test without S9 mixture revealed that Applephenon, had slight mutagenicity at a high concentration of 2500 microg/plate;
however, both chromosomal aberration test and the micronucleus test found
no significant mutagenicity.
Furthermore, an acute oral-toxicity test, and a 90-day subchronic-toxicity
test showed no significant
hematological, clinical, chemical, histopathological, or urinary effects at
a dose of 2000 mg/kg. These results confirm that Applephenon is safe and no
toxic at average dietary level.
PMID: 15110105 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Mar
Apple peels as a value-added food
ingredient. Wolfe KL, Liu RH.
Institute of Comparative and Environmental Toxicology,
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-7201, USA.
There is some evidence that chronic diseases, such as cancer and
cardiovascular disease, may occur as a result of oxidative stress.
Apple peels have high
concentrations of phenolic compounds and may assist in the prevention of
chronic diseases. Millions of pounds of waste apple peels are
generated in the production of applesauce and canned apples in New York
State each year. We proposed that a valuable food ingredient could be made
using the peels of these apples if they could be dried and ground to a
powder without large losses of phytochemicals. Rome Beauty apple peels
were treated with citric acid dips, ascorbic acid dips, and blanches
before being oven-dried at 60 degrees C. Only blanching treatments greatly
preserved the phenolic compounds, and peels blanched for 10 s had the
highest total phenolic content. Rome Beauty apple peels were then blanched
for 10 s and dried under various conditions (oven-dried at 40, 60, or 80
degrees C, air-dried, or freeze-dried). The air-dried and freeze-dried
apple peels had the highest total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin
contents. On a fresh weight basis, the total phenolic and flavonoid
contents of these samples were similar to those of the fresh apple peels.
Freeze-dried peels had a lower water activity than air-dried peels on a
fresh weight basis. The optimal processing conditions for the ingredient
were blanching for 10s and freeze-drying. The process was scaled up, and
the apple peel powder ingredient was characterized. The total phenolic
content was 3342 +/- 12 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g dried peels, the
flavonoid content was 2299 +/- 52 mg catechin equivalents/100 g dried
peels, and the anthocyanin content was 169.7 +/- 1.6 mg cyanidin
3-glucoside equivalents/100 g dried peels.
These phytochemical contents were
a significantly higher than those of the fresh apple peels if calculated
on a fresh weight basis (p < 0.05). The apple peel powder had a
total antioxidant activity of 1251 +/- 56 micromol vitamin C
equivalents/g, similar to fresh Rome Beauty peels on a fresh weight basis
(p > 0.05). One gram of powder had an antioxidant activity equivalent to
220 mg of vitamin C. The freeze-dried apple peels also had a strong
antiproliferative effect on HepG(2) liver cancer cells with a median
effective dose (EC(50)) of 1.88 +/- 0.01 mg/mL. This was lower than the
EC(50) exhibited by the fresh apple peels (p < 0.05).
Apple peel powder may be used in a
various food products to add phytochemicals and promote good health.
Toxicological studies on procyanidin B-2 for external
application as a hair growing agent.
Takahashi T, Yokoo Y, Inoue T, Ishii A.
Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ibaraki, Japan.
Procyanidin B-2 [epicatechin-(4beta --> 8)-epicatechin] is one of condensed
tannin that exists widely in plants. We have reported previously that
procyanidin B-2 possesses
hair epithelial cell growth-promoting activity and stimulates anagen
induction in hair cycle progression. To evaluate the safety of topical
procyanidin B-2 as a hair growing agent, we examined the mutagenicity, acute
subcutaneous injection, primary irritation, skin sensitization, and eye
irritation of this compound. Mutagenicity tests using bacteria showed
procyanidin B-2 to be non-mutagenic. Chromosomal aberration tests using CHL
cells indicated that procyanidin B-2 caused polyploidy but no structural
aberrations. In micronucleus tests for mutagenicity using mice, procyanidin
B-2 was negative. Acute subcutaneous injection study using rats revealed no
symptoms of significant injury. The lethal dose of procyanidin B-2 is
greater than 2000 mg/kg (subcutaneous injection). Primary irritation tests
using rabbits indicated that procyanidin B-2 containing preparation shows no
primary irritation. In the guinea pig maximization test, there was no
evidence of sensitization to procyanidin B-2. In primary ocular irritation
tests using rabbits, procyanidin B-2 containing preparation and vehicle
showed slight irritation of conjunctivae which is assumed to be caused by
ethanol. It is suggested that
topical procyanidin B-2 is safe and acceptable from the series
of toxicological tests.
PMID: 10456683 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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